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tribolium castaneum damage

The mode of damage in each cereal food was also recorded during studies. 1976 Nov 11;264(5582):169-70. doi: 10.1038/264169a0. [4], Although multiple mating events may result in an increased likelihood for finding genetically compatible sperm, genetic compatibility cannot always be considered a major fitness advantage for polyandrous behavior. In this way, genetic incompatibility is reduced and diversity is increased in a population. on cereal foods (corn flakes, white flour (Maida), semolina (Suji) and biscuits]under laboratory conditions", "5 ills., 2 tables, 20 appendix, 40 ref.".  |  The sample of each cereal foods used in the experiment was 200 grams, kept in one Kilogram capacity plastic jar covered with muslin cloth and blended with rubber strip. The spontaneous rate (angular values) of wing abnormalities was 5.3%, 11.2%, 3.5% and 7.2%, and the corresponding induced values were 16.7%, 20.5%, 11.7% and 25.2% for fast, intermediate, slow and unselected lines, respectively. The overall result on the population fluctuation showed the White Flour (Maida) was statistically most preferred food for red flour beetle as it harboured highest population (272.26 beetles/week). Although previously regarded as a relatively sedentary insect, it has been shown in molecular and ecological research to disperse considerable distances by flight. 2020 Jul 14;11(7):440. doi: 10.3390/insects11070440. [5], Polyandrous behavior may not always result in the propagation of adaptive genes. During August 19th to December 30th the relative humidity percent ranged 49 to 68 favoured the pest population. Surtees (1964) found that damage to wheat grain by T. castaneum was restricted to the germ. 1960 Oct;13:556-93 RNAi-mediated crop protection against insects. Nature. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Sperm precedence is thus a means of evolutionary competition through which the males try to achieve greater reproductive success. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that there is a significantly lower number of offspring produced when inbred beetles mate than when the matings are between out-bred partners. [10] Even though there is successful fertilization, it is observed that a lower number of total offspring is produced, which can be argued to be a type of inbreeding depression since it lowers reproduction fitness. Differential lethality following treatment with ionizing radiations of various energies in Drosophila. Journal of Animal and Feed sciences. These beetles a… Double-Stranded RNA Technology to Control Insect Pests: Current Status and Challenges. The studies on population fluctuation and mode of damage of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) Ithaca, NY: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications, 290 (2009). PLoS One. Because some of the major causes of variation cannot be readily measured, and variation is relatively limited, a fixed value of 4.1 for the number of germs attacked by larvae is proposed as a useful approximation in relationships between numbers of T. castaneum larvae and amount of damage to wheat grain.  |  Larvae reach a length of 8 mm prior to pupation. on cereal foods (corn flakes, white flour (Maida), semolina (Suji) and biscuits]under laboratory conditions. Copyright © 1988 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Few data concerning damage to grain are available for Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). These beetles have chewing mouthparts, but do not bite or sting. Dependence of induced mutation on spontaneous mutation in Tribolium castaneum. [5] Certain strains of females avoid multiple mating events while other strains of female engage in higher degrees of polyandry. Research largely shows that Male red flour beetles engage in polygamous behavior to avoid inbreeding depression, especially when there is competition from other males. 1963 Aug;19:569-81 Knockdown of RNA Interference Pathway Genes in Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates a Possible Mechanism of Resistance to Lethal dsRNA. 2002;11:1–18. Red and confused flour beetles attack stored grain products such as flour, cereals, meal, crackers, beans, spices, pasta, cake mix, dried pet food, dried flowers, chocolate, nuts, seeds, and even dried museum specimens (Via 1999, Weston and Rattlingourd 2000). There is a higher fertilization success in out-bred males when they compete with inbred males to fertilize the same female. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Red flour beetle is although a Cosmopolitan and probably the most frequently found in all stored products it also feeds corn flakes, Biscuits, Maid and Semolina (Suji). Similar trends of means were recorded for all the remaining variables. Originating in the Asia-Pacific region, global food transportation has held re-distribute this pest globally, ensuring its place as one of the most important pest species of stored produce. E-cadherin is a membrane bound protein of epithelial cells involved in cell-cell adhesion. James, C. Brief 41: Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops: 2009. On the other hand, polygyny refers to polygamy practiced by males in a population. Temperature, relative humidity, grain sample, and insect strain all produced small but significant effects on the number of wheat grains damaged by individual larvae of Tribolium castaneum during their development. Both factors and their interactions significantly affected all the response variable measured. However, amount of stored sperm does not stop the last male mate from fertilizing the egg. Amongst the cereal foods Flour (Maida) was most preferred food for red flour beetle and it favoured the highest beetle population; whereas, biscuits were found less damaged by this beetle and less population was recorded. The highest mean final adult population density of 129.7 ± 4.6 was recorded in samples infested with the highest initial adult population density and stored for 150 d, while the least mean adult population density of 10.8 ± 0.54 was recorded on samples infested with the lowest initial adult population density in samples stored for 30 d. The highest percentage damaged cocoa beans 51.0 ± 1.21% was recorded in samples infested with the highest initial adult population density, while the least mean percentage damaged beans of 16.9 ± 1.26% was also recorded on samples infested with the lowest initial adult population density. NIH The studies on population fluctuation and mode of damage of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Cabi, 2008). Population fluctuation and mode of damage of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) White (1982) observed that individual larvae attacked an average of about three germs during development, but that the number appeared to vary with the degree of exposure of germs of the available grains.  |  [13], The Red Flour beetle has played an important role as a model organism serving as a model for development and functional genomics.

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