This could be a multispectral image representing bands 1 to 7, a single band Panchromatic image (band 8), a single band Cirrus image (band 9) or a combination thereof (including individual band files). It should not be the Thermal bands (Bands 10 and 11) or the QA band. Landsat 8 Collection 1 Tier 1 calibrated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. This dataset is the atmospherically corrected surface reflectance from the Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS sensors. The internet is full of various contradictory advice on corrections one can make to get NDVI computed from Landsat 8 to fall between -1 and 1. This information is a bit buried but, if you read the USGS Landsat Surface Reflectance-derived Spectral Indices product guide and the associate processing software guide, you can ascertain that reflectance values are scaled to 16-bit, which is consistent with your observed data range. This is for instructional purposes, so I hope to use the Analysis-Ready Data products (surface and TOA reflectance), which have already been atmosphere- … Landsat 8 MSI: Select the input Landsat 8 image to be converted to reflectance. (2009) for details on the TOA computation. Calibration coefficients are extracted from the image metadata. See Chander et al. In addition, for each collection that contains T1 or T2 images, TOA (top-of-atmosphere reflectance) and SR (surface reflectance) products are offered. This leads to the assumption that there are some saturated pixels. Landsat 5: Radiance/Reflectance Calculation Comparison Contrary to expectations, NASA does include solar angle in its reflectance calculations. However, there are small differences between ENVI calibrated values and manually calculated values for both radiance and reflectance. These images contain 5 visible and near-infrared (VNIR) bands and 2 short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands processed to orthorectified surface reflectance, and two thermal infrared (TIR) bands processed to orthorectified brightness temperature . Simply apply the steps in the following paragraph to convert to Landsat 8 DOS or COST Method surface reflectance (Landsat 8 DOS Method and Landsat 8 COST Method were published by GIS Ag Maps at www.gisagmaps.com on 9/5/2013 and are based on the DOS method from Chavez  and COST method from Chavez ). Reflectance DN # of Pixels Reflectance DN # of Pixels Band ... For Landsat 8 images, the DN value of 65535 is the maximum possible value, and there are a lot of pixels with DN=65535 that are clustered in the Dominica image (See images below). The following table describes the collection ID for TOA and SR collections using Landsat 8 data as an example.
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