Muslims retaliated against the economically dominant Hindu Marwari community. A Chronology (1947-2003)», IPCS Research Paper, March, New Delhi: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, REDDY, G. Ram, 1979, «Language, Religion and Political Identity – the Case of the Majlis-i-Ittehadul Muslimeen», in TAYLOR, David, YAPP, Malcolm (eds. Both sides were poised for a battle. Just before the first round of elections could be held, violence swept Uttar Pradesh. The procession was scheduled to reach Ayodhya (Uttar Pradesh) after some 10,000 kilometers of ecstatic crowds but, also, predictably, leaving a bloody trail in its wake (Engineer 1991c). are often in the news and, with increased frequency, Rajasthan, where, after a long BJP reign, the Sangh militants do not accept to see the Congress back, with Ashok Gehlot as the present chief minister. As in many places in India, processions are familiar and frequent events. About to lose the Meerut city seat, the BJP organized aggressive campaigns to prevent Muslims from voting. In Baroda, riots erupted when the Ganapati procession, led by the BJP Health Minister of Gujarat, crossed a Muslim locality. And in the South, it has been remarked how sensitive Karnataka has become, with many new Hindu groups proving really dangerous. Mandal versus Mandir. JAFFRELOT, Christophe, 1996, The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics: 1925 to the 1990s, Strategies of identity-building, implantation and mobilisation, London: C. Hurst & Co. JAFFRELOT, Christophe, 1992, « Les émeutes entre Hindous et Musulmans: essai de hiérarchisation des facteurs culturels, économiques et politiques », Culture et Conflits, Spring 1992, n°5: 25-55, JALAL, Ayesha, 1985, The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, JAYAKAR, Pupul, 1993, Indira Gandhi: An Intimate Biography, London: Pantheon, JAYAL, Niraja Gopal, 2004, «A Malevolent Embrace? In the Nagaon district, posters demanding the reconstruction of the Babri Masjid were hung up. The media reported 73 deaths in the state. In 1992, echoing the hoisting of the national flag by BJP President Murli Manohar Joshi in Srinagar (Kashmir), the Hubli's BJP unit attempted to hoist the national flag on the Idgah Maidan, thereby provoking the indignation of the AEI. Many Muslims from poor backgrounds were burned alive, particularly in the area of Shastri Nagar where 33 persons (or more than 100 according to the residents) were killed. ***(Mehta and Tiwari 2008); ***(Engineer 2009). They set fire to Hindu shops, leading to a small-scale riot. In 1999, the electorate granted the Hindu party the support it needed to form a well-balanced government. Hindu activists, helped by the PAC, looted and burned parts of the city. Communal violence erupted in Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) on December 10 when Muslim hawkers selling clothes were attacked and their merchandise burned. In Channapatna, the «eve-teasing» (sexual harassment) of a Muslim girl by a Hindu boy triggered riots in which 17 people died (13 Muslims and 4 Hindus). President's rule had been imposed on the four BJP states. It stopped suddenly, due in large degree to a signal being sent on March 12, 1993 by the Gulf Muslim mafias, in the form of several bomb blasts that were set off in major public places in Bombay. The yatra left Somnath (Gujarat) and its famous temple on September 25, 1990. Violence engulfed Hazaribagh (Bihar). Engineer stated that according to police sources, 202 people died, among whom 137 were victims of shooting by police and the others of mob violence. Starting in 1961, the country has witnessed a number of severe riots: dramatic events occurred in Calcutta, Rourkela, and Jamshedpur following the theft of a relic hair of the Prophet in Kashmir (1964). It is alleged by some survivors that more than 100 persons were killed. Whatever the blow and the denigrating campaign which followed, the beginnings of the new coalition, the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), were brilliant: Sonia Gandhi stepped down, with much elegance, to make room for a prime minister who would not be controversial, a Sikh moreover, Dr. Manmohan Singh. Advani was arrested and subsequently imprisoned in Masanjore. Live Music Archive. ), India since 1950, 2011, Delhi: Yatra Books, pp 585-611, GRAFF, Violette, 2008, «L'Inde laïque et ses musulmans: une minorité géante et mal-aimée», in VANER, Semih, HERADSTVEIT, Daniel, KAZANCIGIL, Ali (ed. In the South, Islam arrived by way of pacific sailors and merchants, who stayed on inter-marrying, if only temporarily, with local women. Now it would be a giant Ram Rath Yatra (God's chariot procession), with the strong man of the BJP, L. K. Advani, leading on a colorful truck with the Ram idol on its front, and again crores of devotees, from all shades and castes, offering flowers, and even, at times, their own blood. 03:30 pm The Central Moon Sighting Committees in India Pakistan and Bangladesh have issued appeals to Muslims in their respective countries to sight the crescent, Ramadan Moon or Ramzan Chand, Wednesday May 16, 2018 corresponding to 29th Shaban 1439. Clashes started on October 2 when a Durga Puja procession shouting slogans such as «Jai Shri Ram» («Long live Ram») near a mosque was stopped by some Muslim youths. **(The Times of India 16/12/1990); ***(Engineer 1991c); ***(Brass 2003: 116–125), 1990; December 10–15: Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh). That was not to be (Jayal 2004). It is to be noted that in 2003, troubles had already taken place when a Holi procession led by Adityanath passed near a mosque in a Muslim-dominated locality. Muslims would never forgive Narasimha Rao. In Anand, on September 4, the same scenario was repeated and three lives were lost when a Ganesh procession shouted anti-Muslim slogans while passing through a Muslim area. Ummid.com is part of the Awaz Multimedia and Publications providing World News, News Analysis and Feature Articles on Education, Health. In all, the two phases of rioting in Bombay-in December 1992 and January 1993-claimed 900 lives (575 Muslims, 275 Hindus, 45 unknown and 5 others): according to the Srikrishna Commission report. The situation further degraded on December 7 and 8. It could have lasted whatever the forms. Adivasis participated in the attacks against Muslims on a scale never witnessed before. 1, n°3, pp 7-14, GANDHI, Krishna, 1980, «Anatomy of the Moradabad Riots», Economic and Political Weekly, September 6, 1980, XV, (36), pp 1505-1507, GANDHI, Rajmohan, 1986, Understanding the Muslim Mind, New Delhi: Penguin Books, GHOSH, S.K., 1987, Communal Riots in India, Meet the Challenge Unitedly, New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House, GOPAL, Sarvepalli, 1991, Anatomy of a Confrontation: the Babri Masjid/Ramjanmabhumi issue, New Delhi: Penguin Books, GRAFF, Violette, GALONNIER, Juliette, 2012, «Hindu-Muslim Communal Riots in India I (1947-1986)», Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, Paris, Sciences Po, CERI, GRAFF, Violette, GALONNIER, Juliette, 2012, «Hindu-Muslim Communal Riots in India II (1986-2011)», Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, Paris, Sciences Po, CERI, GRAFF, Violette, 2011, «Muslims and Politics», in JAFFRELOT, Christophe (ed. In Bihar, the recently elected Janata leader, Laloo Prasad Yadav, showed his determination by putting an end to [L. K. Advani->http://www.massviolence.org/Lal-Krishna-Advani,695?decoupe_recherche=advani]'s yatra at the border between Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Rioting is rare in these regions and, when it does occur, it does so only for local reasons, as for example, with rivalries between fishermen (in Marad in 2002–2003). But, by and large, the period was dominated by unfortunate gesticulations, unreasonable boycotts and rallies from the Muslim side; and by exacting pressures from the emergent «Ramjanmabhoomi movement» which was now fighting for building a Ram temple in Ayodhya. The country then witnessed a large pogrom against Muslims in Ahmedabad (1969); ghastly riots in Bhiwandi (1970) and Jamshedpur (1979); repeated incidents in Hyderabad; unbridled violence in Moradabad (1980) and Biharsharif (1981); huge massacres in Nellie (1983); and terrible riots in Bombay–Bhiwandi (1984) (for a detailed account of this period, as well as a general introduction to India and its various communities, see «Hindu–Muslim Communal Riots in India I (1947–1986)» by Violette Graff and Juliette Galonnier .) In 1992, echoing the hoisting of the national flag by BJP President [Murli Manohar Joshi->http://www.massviolence.org/Murli-Manohar-Joshi?decoupe_recherche=joshi] in Srinagar (Kashmir), the Hubli's BJP unit attempted to hoist the national flag on the Idgah Maidan, thereby provoking the indignation of the AEI. Starting in 1961, the country has witnessed a number of severe riots: dramatic events occurred in Calcutta, Rourkela, and Jamshedpur following the theft of a relic hair of the Prophet in Kashmir (1964).
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